انتشار تجهیزات خانگی الکتریکی و اثرات آن در تقاضای انرژی الکتریکی مسکونی در برزیل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|15074||2005||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy and Buildings, Volume 37, Issue 8, August 2005, Pages 853–857
The sizing and the distribution of the circuits, equipments of illumination and wall sockets of a household building are planned to offer a certain comfort to the users. The comfort is associated to a psychological state of welfare and depends on an ample amount of factors. The residences consume about 26% of the total electric energy in Sao Paulo state and the tasks aimed to the optimization of the energy use must consider the household use. Currently, the Brazilian market of electric energy grows to a tax of 4.5% per year and during the last decades, the consumption of electrical energy presented superior tables of expansion to the gross domestic product (GDP). This growth showed up larger the household, commercial and agricultural consumers. The standards of comfort and performance change as the time goes by, with the incorporation of new technologies. The number of household appliances has been increased by the years, as well as the use of new equipments, demanding alterations in the electric projects to attend to this comfort of use.
The comfort is associated to a psychological state of welfare and depends on an ample amount of factors. Many studies have been elaborated in the field of the civil construction, about thermal and acoustical comfort, which aim to the rise of quantified values of the variables connected to these factors. In the connection of electrical comfort, we are trying to quantify the need of power, illumination and wall sockets of a household construction in order to attend the need of the users to promote their comfort. The standards of comfort and performance also change up to the time (with the incorporation of new technologies) and up to the place. This way, a rural house has different necessities of a house in the great urban centers. The need of bigger quantities of wall sockets and illumination in the great city are larger and because of that, more studied. The way of use of the household electrical energy has been always subject of study and this represents a considered slice of the energy market, assuming an important paper in the studies of energy efficiency. In the situations of energy crisis, as the current one, these studies can supply data to define changes in worldwide the energy matrix. For understanding the use of the energy in a way that it can optimize its use in a long and average period, we cannot just study the way of current use of the energy as there is also a need of checking in the evolution of this type of consumption and its growth up to the time, looking for data analyses from the past, comparing them to the present ones searching for evolutions standards and even submit them to a verification of the future predictions researches in this type of use. As the history of the use of the household electricity is considered recent, so we can trace an evaluative profile, considering the technology alterations, habits, necessities and behavior of the families, which have made the use of the energy to modify in order to warrant the standards of performance necessary to the comfort of the users. Thinking about the future predictions, many technologies have been studied in the building systems in a systematic way with the advent of the intelligent buildings that take an important place in the commercial constructions. This type of construction has been constantly studied in the academics places for adding in its concept the possibilities of rational use of energy, with use of technologies that learn users behavior and make possible these constructions to be considered sustainable from the energy point of view. We can expect then that the technologies, the processes and the concepts developed in these intelligent buildings that are target firstly in the commercial constructions can move to the household constructions, promoting the same benefits according to the comfort and the efficiency. This study makes a verification in data that turns up some predictions about the intelligent buildings to make possible tasks of future diagnosis related to the use of the household electric energy.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
All the verifications proved that the number of electrical household appliances increases more than the number of domiciles, thus generating a bigger dependence of the electricity. With the advance of the technology and the new equipment creation, also increases the necessities of power, and consequently the necessity of wall sockets in the residences. The norms need constant revision to warrant a standard of adequate performance to the users necessities. The standards of electric comfort change by time, with the access to new equipment and the household installed potency increases by the time. It's almost impossible to foresee the necessities of the future in building electrical installations because of uncertainty of the equipments and necessities of them. So the best thing to do in order to have a house able to receive the new technologies is making a flexible installation, with great quantity of wall sockets, using false doors, false linings and use of some empty ducts in the walls.