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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|15439||2005||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 23, Issue 5, July 2005, Pages 470–481
The research increases our understanding of a build-to-order supply chain (BOSC) by examining the effects of two distinct yet related strategies on applied supply chain knowledge and market performance: a build-to-order (BTO) and a just-in-time (JIT) strategy. The results show that a BTO strategy positively affects market performance through its influence on the application of supply chain knowledge downstream with customers. Although a JIT strategy does affect the upstream application of knowledge with suppliers, the latter does not predict market performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are presented.
Driven by global competition and the continuing expansion of knowledge, firms are organizing build-to-order supply chains (BOSC) that seek to competitively orient an entire supply chain towards providing near-instant delivery of customized products and services on a mass-scale. Although this ideal may be more-or-less illusive, like Six Sigma, “zero-defects”, or real JIT, it is the journey towards the ideal that matters, not the arrival (Economist, 2001). Dell Computer, Nike, and Toyota are among the organizations leading this innovative trend and successfully engendering sustainable competitive advantage (Goldhar et al., 1991). Inherent in BOSC strategy is the need to integrate the entire supply chain from upstream suppliers through downstream order and delivery processes. This study examines two key elements inherent in a BOSC: downstream-oriented build-to-order (BTO) strategy and upstream-oriented just-in-time (JIT) strategy. Fig. 1 presents the theoretical framework of the study. Consistent with strategy preceding practice (Drucker, 1973 and Perrow, 1970), this research examines the relationship of BTO strategy with the application of supply chain knowledge related to customers, and the relationship of JIT strategy with the application of supply chain knowledge related to suppliers. Since upstream and downstream elements are both inherent in a BOSC it is important that the model include both upstream and downstream supply chain variables. In addition, this research examines the effects of applied customer supply chain knowledge and applied supplier supply chain knowledge on market performance. From a practical perspective, the implications of this study become apparent considering a recent Gartner survey that reports 74% of U.S. auto buyers would prefer to order a customized vehicle rather than buy from a dealer's inventory if they could get delivery in less than 3 weeks (Business Wire, 2001). In addition, Nissan Motor estimates a full implementation of BOSC strategy could save up to $ 3600 per vehicle (Economist, 2001). Full-size image (19 K) Fig. 1. Research framework and hypotheses. Figure options BTO strategy and JIT strategy were chosen due to their strategic alignment with a BOSC and the practical and theoretical need to consider a broader supply chain perspective rather than a single subsystem such as JIT or BTO alone. As Holweg and Miemczyk (2002, p. 829) note, while JIT efforts alone have “fostered undeniable improvements in manufacturing efficiency”, and are consistent in their objectives with BTO strategy, “from the customer's perspective they often have failed due to their myopic focus on the factories”. An upstream-oriented supply chain strategy based on a JIT methodology is ideally suited to complement a downstream-oriented BTO strategy that demands extreme flexibility in product volume, complexity and configuration in dealing with trickle-up effects in a BOSC. BTO strategy is a priority in the operations literature and to practitioners seeking advantage in the global marketplace (Cleveland et al., 1989, Hayes and Wheelwright, 1984, Krajewski and Ritzman, 1996, Markland et al., 1995 and Schmenner, 1981). A BOSC is formed with the purpose of creating a sustainable competitive advantage for all members of the supply chain; an advantage ultimately measured by success in the marketplace. While the study of entire supply chains remains problematic, this study seeks to contribute by simultaneously examining two key components of a BOSC; upstream-oriented JIT strategy and downstream-oriented BTO strategy. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. First, the various constructs in the model are defined, theory is presented, and hypotheses are developed. A structural equation model is proposed, and the sampling and statistical methods are presented and explained. This is followed by the results and a discussion of managerial implications and recommendations. Finally, limitations of the research are provided and suggestions are made for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The research utilizes a LISREL model to examine the effects of BTO and JIT strategies on applied customer supply chain knowledge and applied supplier supply chain knowledge and the effects of the latter on market performance. The greater the BTO strategy the more intensive the application of customer supply chain knowledge. Managers embracing a BTO strategy should anticipate a critical need to increase their applied customer supply chain knowledge. A high degree of applied customer supply chain knowledge implies a learning organization that continually improves its customer-related practices, processes, and technologies. Previous research demonstrates that organizations must learn in order to survive (Barnard, 1938, Lawrence and Dyer, 1983 and Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). This research provides evidence that organizations must increase their downstream-oriented applied customer supply chain knowledge resources in order to succeed in a BOSC environment. The development of applied knowledge is an experiential process requiring practice (Polanyi, 1967). Although not addressed in the study, the implementation of more effective and faster applied knowledge acquisition processes should help firms as they seek to establish a sustainable advantage in BOSC supply chains. Applied customer supply chain knowledge and market performance are positively related. The greater an organization's applied customer supply chain knowledge the better the market performance. As organizations increase their applied customer supply chain knowledge managers can anticipate increases in sales and market share. This is consistent with the more general concept that applied knowledge adds value (Spender, 1996) and that superior value associates with superior performance (Slater, 1997). A positive relationship between JIT strategy and applied supplier supply chain knowledge is confirmed. When a JIT strategy is employed, higher levels of applied supplier supply chain knowledge are utilized. Yet applied supplier supply chain knowledge and market performance are not related. This finding is interesting given previous indications of a possible relationship (Claycomb et al., 1999 and Fine, 1998) and the widespread assumption that better supply management positively affects an organization's performance. Despite the failure of the research to show a relationship, it would be unwise to suggest that higher levels of applied supplier supply chain knowledge do not positively affect other aspects of an organization's performance along with the competitiveness of the overall BOSC. This study only considered a single narrow measure of performance — namely, market performance. It may be argued that the major contribution of effective applied supplier supply chain knowledge is reduced material and inventory costs which lead to higher profitability, but not necessarily to higher “market performance”. In summary, managers should not dismiss the importance of improving their applied supplier knowledge based on the failure of this study to confirm a positive relationship with market performance. Finally, as noted earlier, there is no theoretical reason to expect “cross-over” relationships — that is, there was no expectation of relationships between BTO strategy and applied supplier supply chain knowledge or between JIT strategy and applied customer supply chain knowledge. Nevertheless, the confirmation of null effects is important in that it provides evidence that these variables are distinct and separate, even though they both play important roles in the larger BOSC framework.