بررسی نقش نسبی ایفا شده توسط تنظیمات رفتار مصرف کننده و سطوح دخالت در تعیین رفتار محیطی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1775||2005||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 12, Issue 6, November 2005, Pages 419–429
It is well documented that if environmental degradation is to be halted then pro-environmental activities need to be put in place now. This requires the participation of consumers (C), marketers (M) and policy-makers (in this case, the local council (LC)). An examination of the environmental portfolios of LCs and Ms indicates a noticeable increase in behavioural activity which has led to an improvement in their environmental provision. This includes services ranging from recycling to providing information on environmental issues. However, empirical evidence indicates that consumers may have either inadequate or inappropriate knowledge about environmental issues which may have led to low involvement levels and consequently limited behaviour. It may therefore be necessary to distinguish between cognitions that are affected under high or low involvement situations. The involvement levels, however, may be mediated by the consumer behaviour settings (CBS). Using the Behavioural Perspective Model the study observes the impact of CBS and involvement on environmental behaviour. The results indicate that in the low involvement condition CBS has a crucial role to play whereas in the high involvement situation its role may not be significant.
The last decade witnessed a slow progression towards sustainable development. During the same period the world population increased to 6.25 billion and carbon dioxide emissions went up by a tenth (The Independent, 2002). Conferences dealing with environmental issues held over a period of 10 years have, however, been successful in changing attitudes worldwide thus leading to a consensus amongst participating nations that more than voluntary effort is required for any positive change to occur (The Independent, 2001). It is evident that awareness regarding environmental issues is on the increase. The post-developmental phase in the west reflects a shift towards pro-environmental behaviour: 82% of consumers within the UK believe the environment to be a problem which is an ‘immediate and urgent’ issue (Dembokowski and Hanmer-Lloyd, 1997). Pro-environmental behaviour has largely been reflected through two avenues of action: either by reducing or by recovering waste. Translated into behavioural action this involves the purchasing of environmentally friendly products and the recycling of newspapers and bottles (Cone and Hayes, 1984; Marketing, 1992). Although environmental awareness is on the increase, the relevant market is still very small (Troy, 1994). Peattie (1995) refers to this phenomenon as the over-reporting of environmental concern. Environmental behaviour has been seen as ‘pathetically low, partial and fragmented’ (Schlegelmilch et al., 1994). In a comprehensive review of public opinion data, Dunlap (1997) describes environmental behaviour as being limited (see Brown and Hencke, 2002). For instance the UK recycles only 11% of its waste and therefore lags far behind other European countries, for example, Germany and Austria who recycle 48% and 64% of their waste, respectively (BBC News (27/11/02), 2002).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The present study investigated the relative roles of the levels of involvement and CBS in determining environmental behaviour. At a general level the results indicate that in an open consumer setting the significance of involvement levels have been crucial whereas in a closed behaviour setting their impact on the respondent behaviour is less apparent. However, at the specific level it is the creation of the four groups based on these variables that has provided a useful insight into the different patterns of pro-environmental behaviour. Therefore, rather than adopting a mass-media approach, which may be appropriate in a high involvement situation, an environmental strategy that acknowledges behavioural variations will be more effective (Shrum et al., 1994; Evison and Read, 2001). In the absence of any support from the local authority the behavioural pattern of the high involvement group in Roker resembles the traditional description of a highly involved consumer highlighted by the research in this area. The individuals in this category have displayed their motivation to generate environmentally friendly alternatives to their everyday activities. The highly involved subgroup in the EH area has indicated that they need more convenient recycling facilities in addition to more incentives and information regarding the environmental provisions in their area. These behavioural variations between the two highly involved groups provide clear implications for Ms of green products. For instance, the highly involved segment, such as the one in Roker may act as initiators/innovators for new products in this category. They are more likely to create new initiatives like the voluntary scheme adopted by the local community in Haringey (London), which has been successful in reducing recycling-related costs (Brockes, 2002). Therefore this segment may make a significant contribution to the diffusion of new green alternatives. The role of the highly involved respondents such as the ones in EH may be significant in terms of the continuation of pro-environmental behaviour. They may also be responsible for the bulk of the repeat purchases in this product category. The Marketers (Ms) and the Local Council (LC) will need to provide regular information concerning the recycling facilities and any incentives provided to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. Therefore, a push strategy may be more effective for this segment as it will ensure an adequate supply of relevant facilities and products. In addition to the standard procedure of making environmentally relevant literature available in the council offices whereby the impetus is on residents to obtain it, the methods adopted by the London Borough of Sutton and Shepway District Council may be effective in disseminating information on a regular basis. The provision of information could either be done by the publication of a biannual newspaper (such as Sutton Environmental News) or by forming a partnership scheme with the local newspaper as done by the Shepway District Council, informing local residents of any new or on-going initiatives in their areas (Evison and Read, 2001). It is well documented that the present level of consumer involvement in environmental issues is low. The consumers demonstrating low pro-environmental behaviour have been referred to as soft environmentalists in the literature review and it is this sub-group which is of interest in this study. The results indicate that it would be too simplistic to assume low levels of pro-environmental behaviour amongst the less involved respondents. The current study has identified distinct underlying behavioural patterns between the less involved groups. Under a low involvement situation such as the one in Roker, the residents have indicated that they possess the appropriate environmental knowledge but have failed to display this in their purchases. This situation has also been exacerbated by the lack of impetus from the local authority; however, in this context a strategy committed to enhancing the current provisions to facilitate environmental behaviour may not be adequate as the residents indicate that they are satisfied with them. As with the highly involved EH subgroup, Ms and the LC need to be pro-active in providing pertinent information on a continuing basis. The reasons however for doing so in this case would differ. The respondents would use this information to judge the green claims made by Ms to eliminate any doubts that they may have regarding these issues, and it will also enable them to conduct an informed evaluation of green products alongside the mainstream marketing alternatives before a purchase decision can be made. The supermarket Sainsbury, who has been ranked as one of the best green supermarkets, for instance, may facilitate the green-purchase process by promoting its environmental policies and products so that consumers recognise it as a pro-environmental organisation (The Independent, 1996, 2003). Although it carries a range of environmentally friendly products, there is a need for it to clarify what products are truly green in nature. One approach suggested to achieve this is the use of an “ethical shopping computer” which would check products to assess how green they are (Toynbee, 1996). In general, supermarkets may make the current shelving of products effective so that consumers can identify green products easily. But the possibility that environmentally friendly products may not be adopted on a mass scale and that these residents may stay apathetic to the environmental process cannot be ruled out at this stage. Based on the extent of their current pro-environmental behaviour this subgroup may represent the segment of laggards or non-adopters as far as the environmental process is concerned (Bhate and Lawler, 1997). Even though the low involvement EH group recycle and purchase environmentally friendly products it is possible that this may be largely due to the provision of convenient facilities in their area. However, because of their low involvement there is a possibility that in the absence of these provisions the respondents may cease to engage in pro-environmental activities on a regular basis. Therefore, ‘the availability and the price’ of green alternatives may be more crucial in the low involvement context. As with their highly involved counterparts, the implementation of a push strategy but one that includes a price subsidy may increase/maintain the likelihood of the green products being a part of their shopping on a regular basis. Likewise the availability of convenient recycling facilities may also ensure the continuation of environmentally friendly behaviour. The zero-tolerance policy such as the one adopted by the Bath and Northeast Somerset Councils and a number of countries such as Sweden and Norway, is more likely to be successful in the context of the low involvement group in Roker, if applied in conjunction with appropriate facilities (The Gaurdian, 2002).