ارزش ویژه برند خرده فروشی : مفهوم سازی و اندازه گیری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1923||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 19, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 140–149
This article focuses on retail brand equity to understand where this retail brand value stems from and how to measure it. A conceptual framework is defined based on Keller's contributions about brand equity. A qualitative methodology and a confirmatory analysis enable the conception of a model. This one is tested through structural equation modeling with Path-PLS. Results show that retail brand awareness and perceived quality explain the most significantly retail brand equity. Retail brand personalities and retailers with particular managerial values have also a significant influence. Hence, the performance of retail brands depends on the same factors as those of other brands.
There is a tendency today towards an increasing perceived quality level of retail brands in many countries (e.g., Huang and Huddleston, 2009, Kumar and Steenkamp, 2007 and Quelch and Harding, 1996). Qualitative innovation,1 sophisticated packaging and a wide range of retail brands − from generic products to value-innovator retail brands (Kumar and Steenkamp, 2007) − can create consumer value through real retail brand marketing (Ailawadi and Keller, 2004). One of the sources of retail brand success is perceived quality,2 which leads to store differentiation and store loyalty (Burt and Sparks, 2002, Corstjens and Lal, 2000, Halstead and Ward, 1995, Richardson, 1997 and Rondan Cataluna et al., 2006). Retail branding policies have been developed throughout Europe and, more specifically, in Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom (Oubina et al., 2006). However, retail brand policies developed by European retailers seem to differ both from one country to the next as well as from one retailer to another within the same country (Johansson and Burt, 2004). This paper studies the situation of retail brands in France, which is at an intermediate performance level of retail brands in Europe between the United Kingdom (probably the most advanced) and Italy (among the least developed) if we consider comparable countries. In 2005, retail brands in Europe had a 23% share across 17 markets (Lybeck et al., 2006), which is about the same rate as in France, whereas this rate is much higher in the UK. For example, 51.9% of Sainsbury's and 50% of Tesco's3 sales come from their retail brands. The growth rate of retail brands (+5%) is twice the growth rate of manufacturer brands, which is about 2% (Lybeck et al., 2006). So retail brands continue their penetration, and they represent a dynamic perspective of development for retailers (Corstjens and Lal, 2000). It focuses on retail brand equity to understand both where this retail brand value stems from and how to measure it in the French retail context. The retail brand equity concept is a recent view of the value created by retail brands. Few articles have focused on it (Swoboda et al., 2009). So, we define a model of retail brand equity based on Ailawadi and Keller's propositions (2004) and we test it empirically. In other words, the first objective of this research is to conceptualize retail brand equity, i.e., to identify the main components that create and maximize the value of this brand. We use Keller's model as a primary conceptual framework, and we pose the following assumption: the cognitive process used by consumers to perceive brands is the same between retail brands and manufacturer brands. However, as retail brands seem to be closer to service brands, a new model is proposed to reveal specific dimensions of retail brand equity. The second objective aims to confirm the validity of the measures of these components through a confirmatory analysis using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Expected contributions of this work are both conceptual and managerial. Because of a dearth of literature on retail brand equity, this research first attempts to provide theoretical contributions on how to conceptualize and measure this concept. Adapting the brand equity concept to retail branding is then of interest for new perspectives to define value components and develop retail brand positioning strategies. The article is organized as follows. In the first section, Keller's conceptual framework of brand equity is adapted to retail brands in order to suggest a theoretical retail brand equity model and hypotheses. In the second section, a confirmatory analysis verifies measure reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity of the main retail brand equity components. In the final section, we test hypotheses and theoretical nomological validity. Results are finally discussed in conclusion, including research perspectives.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Because of a dearth of literature on retail brand equity, this research strives to provide theoretical foundations to conceptualize and measure this concept. Because retail brands can be considered service brands, a model of retail brand equity based on Keller's model (1993) is proposed, with corporate and service dimensions added to Keller's original model. The exploratory research described in this paper aims to specify components and their associations of retail brand image. To do so, 54 customers (qualitative research) and then 504 consumers (quantitative research) are interviewed. From these interviews and Keller's model, we derive a retail brand equity model that describes customers' perceptions and behaviors toward the retail brand. This model reveals that retail brand equity is a multidimensional concept composed of two main components: awareness and positive retail brand image. Positive retail brand image includes five sub-components: perceived quality, price image, retail brand personality and retailer personality, brand service and store service. In other words, retail brand image is composed of different components; some are directly related to product-branding (creating no particular value to the brand) and others are unrelated to product-branding but concern store dimensions, retail brand personality, retailer personality and managerial values/symbols. This result confirms previous contributions on service brands. Retail brands are indeed service brands and their brand image is built on store dimensions. Quantitative research reveals that, among these components, two are particularly determinant of the success of retail brands. Retail brand awareness and perceived quality systematically explain the performance of the retail brand. Based on this result, one can say that retails brands are real brands because their performance depends on the same factors as the other brands. This result shows also that price positioning is not sufficient nowadays to develop a long-term relation with consumers. Based on this research, advertizing investments must be pursued to reinforce the memory of the retail brand name and its distinctive features. Because store image could have an influence on perceived quality of retail brands, managers should pay attention to store atmospherics and all components of service delivered in store. However, it is important to maintain an appropriate price image with the discount positioning of the retailer: the more beautiful the store, the more the perception that it is expensive (Baker et al., 2002). Finally, results show that personality component has a significant influence on the consumers' behaviors. In other words, retail brands build their image on symbolic associations that create value for consumers. These associations could offer a unique axis of positioning for the retail brand. Hence, it seems that retail brands have reached a maturity step from a pure economic positioning to a brand positioning. Adapting brand equity to retail marketing is a real managerial and strategic stake. This could be used by marketers to maximize the potential value of their brands and to position them on a larger set of associations (because of the synergies of image). Building service brands on an extended set of associations can improve differentiation and definition of a unique position in consumers' minds. So the last contribution concerns managerial issues: in order to help managers to identify the specific keys of their retail brand success this model should encourage them to build a long-term relationship with their consumers and define a unique axis for their positioning. They could finally use this model to drive the retail brand performance by knowing the impact of each component on it. However, this work presents some limitations. First, the external validity of results is questionable. Only three retailers, corresponding to three different hypermarkets, were selected in France for this research. Thus, they do not represent all strategies in food retailing. Products chosen here were limited to just three items. Even if they reveal variations and precisions in the building of retail brand equity, they are not sufficient. Second, we need international comparisons both to define more precisely various retail brand equity models and to identify common and specific key factors of the success of retail brands for each country. Third, we should enlarge this research to specific products according to their involvement level in consumer's minds. At the conclusion of this extended research agenda, we could propose a benchmarking tool that enables comparison of the efficiency of each branding strategy at national and international levels. Finally, retail brand equity could be appreciated at the store and the product category levels. Specific components of retail brand equity for each store and each product category could emerge that could help managers in supporting their tactical and operational decisions.