قصد خرید برای نام های تجاری (برند) لوکس : مقایسه بین فرهنگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|2001||2012||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, Issue 10, October 2012, Pages 1443–1451
This cross-cultural study examines the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., consumers' need for uniqueness and self-monitoring) and brand-associated variables (i.e., social-function attitudes toward luxury brands and affective attitude) on U.S. and Chinese consumers' purchase intention for luxury brands. A total of 394 college students in U.S. and China participated in the survey. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study finds that U.S. and Chinese consumers' self-monitoring positively influences social-function attitudes toward luxury brands. Social-function attitudes toward luxury brands positively influence consumers' purchase intention through affective attitude. Attitude plays an important mediating role between social-function attitudes toward luxury brands and purchase intentions. The article closes with theoretical and practical implications.
Luxury brands represent substantial consumer product sales worldwide; global sales of high-end apparel, accessories, watches and jewelry, and other products are projected to rise to 170 billion Euros ($236 billion) in 2009 (Roberts, 2010). Major markets for luxury brands are no longer limited to developed countries in the West, but have expanded to “new rich” markets in the East (Sherman, 2009). However, the factors driving luxury brand purchase behavior among consumers in individualistic versus collectivist cultures differ considerably. Because a clear understanding of the factors that influence consumers to purchase luxury brands is necessary to inform marketing strategies for global luxury brands, understanding how consumers' underlying motivations to purchase luxury brands differ by culture and what accounts for those differences is important. Most studies on cultural comparison are limited to examining the impact of cultural differences on purchase intention for luxury brands (Li and Su, 2007 and Wong and Ahuvia, 1998). The current study responds to Wilcox, Kim, and Sen's (2009) call for research into the relationship between attitude and cultural identity both within and across cultures, aiming at a richer understanding of purchase intention formation for luxury brands by examining how need for uniqueness, self-monitoring, social-function attitudes, and affective attitude impact purchase intentions for luxury brands among consumers in Eastern and Western cultures. The U.S. and China, two major luxury brand markets, are good examples of individualistic and collectivist cultures, respectively, and thus, may differ considerably with respect to motivation to purchase luxury brands. By examining cross cultural differences in consumers' underlying motivations to purchase luxury brands, this study contributes to the literature on the role of need for uniqueness, self-monitoring, social-functional attitudes, and affective attitude on consumers' purchase intention in two different cultures (collectivist versus individualist). Findings support the functional theory of attitude showing that attitudes serve important social-functions as they impact both affect and behavior. This study also shows that emotions are linked to central attitudes and play an important role in purchase intention formation. Furthermore, the findings expand previous research and theory development by examining purchase intention formation for luxury brands across cultures. These findings also provide important implications for luxury brands' branding strategies both within and across cultures. Only by understanding the underlying purchase motivations among consumers in each market segment can marketers most effectively appeal to those motivations in their marketing campaigns.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Drawing on the functional theory of attitude and the cognitive–affective model as the framework, this study examines the impact of individual characteristics (i.e. NFU and self-monitoring) on consumers' social-function attitudes toward luxury brands, which in turn influence affective attitude and purchase intention for luxury brands. The findings support the functional theory of attitude showing that attitudes serve important social-functions as they impact both affect and behavior. Further, the findings show that emotions are linked to central attitudes, and play an important role in purchase intention formation. This study expands previous research by examining the formation of purchase intentions for luxury brands and comparing purchase intention formation across cultures. The finding that Chinese students have higher similarity avoidance NFU than do U.S. students corroborates previous conclusions that individuals in a collective society could adopt and display individualistic elements without changing its collectivist culture (Brewer & Chen, 2007). The Chinese students' need for similarity avoidance (i.e. to distinguish their social group membership in a transitioning society) may also have important theoretical implications. Triandis' (1982) speculation on whether or not Hofstede's dimensions will hold up over time across people and situations involving multiple cultures may be gaining strength, given that globalization has made the world more flat than ever before (Friedman, 2005). Cultural studies focusing on China in the past decade (e.g., Fang, 2003 and Schwartz, 1999) have cast additional doubt on the veracity of Hofstede's cultural difference theory, further reinforcing Triandis's (1982) concerns and suggesting the need for further examination of the appropriateness of cultural difference theory in a transitioning global economy. This study examines the impact of social-function attitudes toward luxury brands on consumers' affective attitude and purchase intentions and shows that emotions are linked to central attitudes, suggesting that consumers tend to respond favorably to brands that are perceived to be consistent with their values and goals (e.g., Snyder & DeBono, 1985). The marginally positive relationship between social-function attitudes and purchase intention suggest that both U.S. and Chinese consumers have a greater intent to purchase their favorite luxury brands when the luxury brands are consistent with their intrinsic beliefs and social image. Extending the findings of other researchers (e.g., Bearden and Etzel, 1982 and Grubb and Grathwohl, 1967) that people consume luxury brands for social-function reasons, these findings show that social-function attitudes toward luxury brands play an important role impacting purchase intention for luxury brands both directly and indirectly through their impact on affect. Furthermore, affect has a dominant and powerful influence on consumers' purchase intention as it plays a mediating role between social-function attitudes and purchase intentions, thereby supporting the cognitive–affective model given that both social-function attitudes (cognition) and affective attitude (affect) impact purchase intention for luxury brands. These findings provide valuable strategic implications for luxury brand retailers who do business in both U.S. and Chinese markets. Luxury brand manufacturers may need to emphasize the characteristics of exceptional quality and dependability because consumers of luxury brands care about the consistency between the brand image and their internal beliefs. Because consumers worldwide use luxury brands to display status, their purchase intention toward luxury brands is aroused when they feel compelled to own a luxury brand to convey their esteem or wealth. Luxury retailers' marketing strategies may either attempt to convince consumers of the brand's upscale social image or use their distinctive image and product scarcity to appeal to those who have high social-function attitudes. Affect is the most important consideration in global marketing strategies and must penetrate every marketing channel because affect attached to luxury brands creates resonance between consumers and brands (Keller, 2001). Consumers with strong affect toward a luxury brand say they love the brand and the tendency for them to purchase the brand is high. Affective-appealing messages can be delivered in a variety of ways. Luxury retailers can convey feelings of pleasure and deliver a fun experience by offering a well-organized assortment of high-quality products and upscale ambience or through exceptional store service that generates an enjoyable, fun experience with the brand, thereby generating positive affect. Self-monitoring is an important individual characteristic that impacts social-function attitudes across cultures, consistent with the functional theory of attitudes concept that individual personality arouses attitude. This finding has important strategic implications for marketers of luxury brands; for example, luxury brand retailers can emphasize the role of the brand in facilitating self-presentation by conveying a unique image and/or social group membership. These findings also provide practical implications for marketing luxury brands in China. Emphasizing exclusivity of the brand may be an effective marketing strategy for luxury brands in the Chinese market, as it focuses on using luxury brands to avoid similarity to others in general. Advertising campaigns can imply the luxury brand's elite usage group to help Chinese consumers convey membership in a specific social group and the exclusion of other groups.