طبقه بندی تجربی از خدمات و محصولات خدمات در تجارت الکترونیک
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Volume 1, Issues 3–4, Autumn–Winter 2002, Pages 339–350
In this study, we newly classify services and service products in EC into four categories: Mass Services, Interactive Services, Supporting Services, and Professional Services. Five selected variables reflecting the characteristics of the services, and two factorized dimensions, (1) proportion of on-line services, and (2) need of on-line interaction, are utilized for the classification. In addition, the relationships with customer purchase intentions in EC are investigated as a result of the classification. For this purpose, a customer survey was conducted on respondent groups who frequently purchase goods or services by EC and who also had advanced knowledge of the services and EC. Statistical methods of factor analysis, cluster analysis, and analysis of variance were utilized for analysis of the data.
Electronic Commerce (EC) acts as three different types of channels: distribution, transaction, and communication channels. However, the extent and efficiency of these applications depend largely on the EC infrastructure, relevant technologies, the characteristics of the product/services, and customer adoption. In particular, characteristics of product/services are critical due to the fact that EC is based on an electronic network for the exchange of digital information. Electronic channels require cooperation with off-line functions for the delivery of tangible goods, and have limitations in the delivery of feelings, kindness and other face-to-face interactions. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of product and services when evaluating the impact of EC. There are several previous studies focusing on the characteristics and classification of products and services in EC. Generally, these studies are based on the concept that there are certain characteristics of products and services that are more suitable for transaction over the Internet. These different characteristics were found to have a significant impact on the customer’s decision for the purchase of goods from a retail store or an Internet shopping mall  and . However, there are currently few studies exclusively focusing on the unique characteristics of services or service products in EC. Transactions in EC can be facilitated or restrained not only by the physical characteristics of products, but also by unique characteristics of services such as intangibility, inseparability, necessity of accessibility, customization, and degree of interaction. Many service processes can be efficiently substituted by Internet applications due to the characteristics of ‘intangibility’. However, ‘inseparability’ and ‘necessity of accessibility’ may hinder possible transactions in EC. Despite many services being provided on-line, these characteristics of services remain critical factors for EC. In addition, EC is rapidly expanding the area of applications in service industries such as entertainment, retailing, tourism, education, and consulting services. As a result, we need to focus on the services and the service industries in order to understand the impact of EC. The focus of our study is on the characteristics of services and service products in EC. This paper is organized into five sections. The first section is the introduction. Section 2 provides a review of service characteristics and taxonomies, and a brief overview of previous research in EC. This section also identifies specific variables forming the basis for the classification scheme. Section 3 presents a description of the data and methods used in the analysis, and reports the classified categories identified by factor analysis and cluster analysis. In addition, this section presents the result of an investigation on the relationship between the classification and customer purchase intentions. Next, in Section 4, the characteristics of each classified group are presented on the results of the classification and the results of this research and contributions are discussed. Concluding remarks are provided in Section 5.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We have proposed a classification of services for EC, and verified that the resulting classification is closely related to customer purchase intentions in EC. The implications of our study can contribute to a greater understanding of service characteristics in EC and its relationship with management issues for academics and industry. With the results of this study, we suggest that the characteristics of services should be identified for those building EC businesses. However, our study has some limitations and challenges for future research. First, as mentioned above, the EC environment changes with improvements in infrastructure, technologies, and customer adoption. In addition, services can move to other categories depending on the perceptions of customers. Therefore, longitudinal and cross-cultural studies reflecting the changes of the EC environment will be required for greater understanding of the overall impact of EC on the service industry. Second, this study did not take into consideration the firm-side characteristics in the development of a classification. However, Internet EC firms can adopt distinct service models through specialized or integrated services, which can influence customer perception of the characteristics of services. Therefore, research on the service firm’s side reflecting diverse applications of EC service models will be necessary in the future. Third, one of the critical dimensions frequently adopted in previous studies on EC was the price and frequency of purchase. This dimension may still be critical in terms of service transactions. However, this study focused exclusively on the characteristics of services. As such, further research of other meaningful variables and dimensions in the area of EC services will be valuable. Also, more advanced research focusing on the detailed characteristics of the classified groups developed in this study will be required.