شرکت های کوچک و کسب و کار الکترونیکی : احتیاط کاری، احتمال و هزینه - فایده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3686||2004||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 27–39
This paper examines how e-business affects small firms in supply chains. Research in four UK supply chain cases, assistive/medical technology, construction, computer consumables and apparel, indicate widening gaps between large and small firm investment and strategy for exploitation of e-business. Existing models of e-business operationalisation are critically evaluated; and their appropriateness in providing insight and guidance is reflected on. While each model individually provides some useful insights, none are appropriate for examining small firm take up of e-business. Therefore a new framework is developed based on three key issues—cautiousness, contingency and cost-benefit.
The Internet presents opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to harness the benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT) in an affordable, simple way, and to reach new customers and suppliers. Simultaneously, however, ICT offers customers cheap, global reach to seek out new suppliers. While offering opportunity to SMEs, internet-based commerce also threatens to introduce new competitors into what were domestic markets. This threat is particularly relevant to manufacturers. However, hype and the creation and deflation of an e-bubble make it imperative that empirical work uncovers the real impacts of e-business on SMEs. To date, business-to-business (B2B) technologies have been predominantly exploited by larger firms downstream in the supply chain rather than by upstream SMEs (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Various models that address appropriate use of e- and IT-induced business transformation have been proposed. Yet, these models tend to be derived from research in large firms; and there is little investigation of the applicability of e- across all businesses in supply chains. For example, approaches used in managing websites with IT developed for large firms may not be applicable to many SMEs (Tesar and Moini, 2001). The problems encountered by SMEs are often different from those of large firms and require different approaches (Blili and Raymond, 1993). Thus existing models may not take into account SME decision processes and SME individuality (often highly idiosyncratic and owner-led). This research addresses the need for exploratory, empirically grounded work on how e-business affects SMEs. While e-business take-up and use is dynamic, the key findings presented here have a continuing salience for policy makers. The paper is divided into five sections. First, existing e-business models are discussed and seven are reviewed drawing from research in purchasing, IT and SMEs. In combination, these models are used to help understand the case firms’ current use of e-. Second, the research method and contextual background to the case SMEs in the four supply chains are given. The third section reports key findings from the case analysis including current use of e, e-business strategy, nature of business, competitive pressure, benefits and risks, owner's interests and behavioural and cultural issues. Section four provides a critical review of the relevance of existing models for assisting SMEs in e-business development, in the light of the fieldwork. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are provided.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A multidisciplinary review of current e-business models found they were derived from, and most suitable to, a large firm perspective. Seven models have been critically appraised in terms of appropriate use of e-, different types of SMEs, e-business development, risk, behavioural and cultural issues in the light of the findings from the field research. Whilst each model or framework has some limited application where it is most relevant or predictive, the paper concludes that none of the existing models can be used on a stand-alone basis for recommending specific e- adoption routes appropriate to SMEs. Instead, a contingent approach is needed, which is informed by managerial trade offs, risk as experienced by SMEs, and recognition of the static nature of markets suggested by existing models. There is no wholesale solution to SME adoption. Specifically, low customer demand for e- solutions, the importance of face-to-face contact in many SME markets, and the pragmatic and fragmented approach of SMEs to investment, inform the conclusion that these and other factors necessitate models that permit trade offs between sometimes conflicting and dynamic objectives. This makes life complicated for two main groups—the e- solution vendors and the policy makers. Economies of scale encourage e-solution vendors to offer standardised modules with features and options to allow fine-tuning to suit different sector contexts; however, it is difficult to see what standard modules might be appropriate to all SMEs. A fundamental lesson for policy makers keen to enable e-adoption is to ground advice to SMEs in terms of their business model—which takes into account factors such as attitude to growth, age of owners etc.—and not in either the technology or theoretical statements about markets. The combination of a policy aspiration of the UK Government to make the UK the easiest place to trade electronically by 2005, with the galling statistic that 95% of all VAT registered UK businesses are SMEs demonstrates why the UK Department of Trade and Industry have been finding it so difficult to influence e-adoption. However, a more developmental approach to policy implementation appears appropriate. As 40% of the UK Gross Domestic Product is represented by the public sector, large public sector organisations can play a key role as a lever of reform. If their procurement activities encouraged and supported SME adoption and use of e-, they could influence not only the achievement of the Modernisation Agenda, but also support SMEs that are the backbone of healthy, sustainable, local economies and communities. Conversely, if public sector procurement pursues an isolated push towards e-business without any development of SMEs in their supply chains, they may well drive public sector spend to concentrate more on larger, more prosperous organisations, concentrating supply markets and damaging local communities. The research appears to confirm the validity of SME cautiousness towards e-adoption, despite Government Modernisation aspirations. Based upon insights from existing research and induction from the field, the paper identifies the areas SMEs must take into account when assessing how to respond to the challenges and risks of e-. Informed by a three Cs (caution, contingency and cost-benefits) approach, such a framework would provide SMEs with guidance on how they can effectively respond to e-business challenges and risks, without force-feeding solutions into the marketplace. This exploratory research indicates directions for further conceptual developments. Further empirical research should specifically address the SME decision processes, grounded in specific SME characteristics, and taking into account the pragmatism discussed here. Such work is intensive and needs to be based upon time spent with the SME, suggesting further case- and interview-based approaches remain a preferred method, however larger samples and the study of further diverse chains would enrich knowledge.